Protective sociality in grasshoppers - Schützendes Sozialverhalten bei Heuschrecken
Morphology and mating
Morphologie und Paarungsverhalten
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Both species, Zonocerus elegans and Phymateus leprosus, exhibit a marked sexual dimorphism, females being the larger sex. Z. elegans also shows a sex-independent dimorphism in wing growth-rate (short-winged f. brachyptera, long-winged f. macroptera); all wings are useless for flight. Wing-length correlates with body-length.
Larger Z. elegans females contain more eggs and seem to be preferred by all males, though larger males win rival competition over females.
There is no courtship in either species. A male just jumps onto a female and rides on her back, mate-guarding for one or several days.

Seibt, Uta & Wickler, Wolfgang 1985: Elytron length and sexual dimorphism in Zonocerus elegans (Thunb.), (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae). South African Journal of Zoology 20, 147- 149.

Wickler, Wolfgang & Seibt, Uta 1985: Reproductive behaviour in Zonocerus elegans (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) with special reference to nuptial gift guarding. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 69, 203-223.